Here we review key epidemiological data from past Ebola outbreaks and carry out a comparative . January 2023 [internet publication]. The .gov means its official. Symptoms of EVD include fever, severe headache, muscle or joint pain, weakness, fatigue, sore throat, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal (stomach) pain, and, in some cases, unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding or bruising). This article highlights the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and prevention of EVD. The triangle has three corners (vertices): Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies Unauthorized use of these marks is strictly prohibited. General introduction into the Ebola virus biology and disease. Disease outbreak news: Ebola virus disease - Democratic Republic of the Congo. Slowing the, Ebola virus (EBOV) is considered to be one of the most belligerent contagious agents and has an ability to cause highly fatal hemorrhagic fever syndrome that results in human and non-human primates death (NHPs) during the days of exposure. Avoid contact with semen from a man who had EVD until you know the virus is gone from the semen. In terms of the reading in addition to the lecture by Haneefa Saleem, the class learned about what is the Ebola virus and its history, the affect it has on a person and their community in addition to how the world has perceived this virus. This infection sparks a chain of events that can quickly transform a small illness into an epidemic. We use cookies to enhance your experience. Mar 2020 [internet publication]. 1 0 obj Ebola has been slowly dying down but has not totally been wiped out. The Reston ebolavirus is dangerous for crab-eating macaque (cynomolgus) monkeys, which were farmed in the Philippines and subsequently imported into the United States and Italy. United States Agency for International Development, United Nations Office for Project Services, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER). government site. 2012 Dec 28;7(12):e52986. Ebola virus disease - pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management. Wear protective clothing and follow infection control recommendations when caring for an infected person., 2020: the eleventh outbreak in the DRC started on June 1, 2020 in the quateur province and was declared over on November 18, 2020, with a total of 130 cases and 55 deaths (case fatality rate 42%). Populations at risk have increased (P = .024) and the geographical extent of Ebola outbreaks has grown (P = .004). Ebola - Democratic Republic of the Congo. As a result, there is an overlap of geographic Ebola virus distribution with the range of the fruit bats, although the Zaire ebolavirus has not been successfully isolated from naturally infected animals. More info. Although the virus is not transmitted via food or water, and the proper cooking of foods should inactivate infectious particles, ingestion of contaminated food may represent a possible route of exposure in natural infections. Bull World Health Organ. World Health Organization. Those vertices are "agent," "host," and "environment." between patient and physician/doctor and the medical advice they may provide. The epidemic was a result of unsafe and unsanitary hospital practices, and non-sterilized medical equipment. For instance, care can occur through traditional healers, the home, primary health care facilities and hospitals (Manguvo, A & Mafuvadze, B 2015, p. 2). For graphs, geographical distribution and more details see the WEEKLY report (on Wednesdays). News-Medical, viewed 01 May 2023, 2022: the fourteenth outbreak in the DRC started on April 23, 2022 in the quateur province and was declared over on July 4, 2022, with a total of 5 cases and 5 deaths (case fatality rate 100%). Symptoms usually appear 810 days after exposure, with a range of 221 days. Lever, Mark S. 2015 Sep;93(3):438-40. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0229. Keywords: Ebola health update:north Kivu/Ituri, DRC, 2018-2020. [35]World Health Organization. The triad consists of an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together. ?j\jQI"8dDbD n. With additional efforts and protocols instituted by organizations such as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the virus began to fall until the present day. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. Report of an International Commission. 2022 Oct 4;22(1):769. doi: 10.1186/s12879-022-07723-6. In this study, the new epidemiological features and prevalence trends for EVD in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are described. 2011 Jul;17(7):964-76. Care of people with Ebola is difficult and varied due to the highly infectious and often fatal nature of the disease. In Central Africa, for the last three years outbursts have been recognized every year, the most recent of which proceeded in the Republic of the Congo with the amount of victims more than 125, according to the World Health Organization (Ebola. 2020 Feb 20;6(1):13. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-0147-3. Forgraphs,geographical distribution and more details see the WEEKLY report (on Wednesdays). 1978;56(2):271-93. It was predicted that the Ebola outbreak would end in June 2015. Metrovi, Tomislav. As each country must strengthen its preparedness and response system to prevent eventual Ebola outbreaks in the future, adequate knowledge about the ecology and transmission of this disease is of the uttermost importance. World Health Organization. How can Ebola virus disease be prevented? Originally, Ebola had never touched the United States until September of 2014. 2014 Oct 16;371(16):1481-95., TheZaire ebolavirus has a reported case fatality rate of up to 90% in previous outbreaks. Ebola virus disease in West Africa: the first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections. * A suspected case (evaluated by a clinician) or person who died from suspected EVD and had an epidemiological link to a confirmed case (but was not tested and did not have laboratory confirmation of the disease) becomes PROBABLE. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the Published online by Cambridge University Press: <> Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Disease outbreak news: Ebola virus disease - Democratic Republic of the Congo. United Nations agencies and programs; Ministries of Health; the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); ReliefWeb; emergency nongovernmental organizations; and publications indexed in PubMed, EmBase, and Clinical Key have been used as sources of data. 2017 Jun 22;12(6):e0179356. Kaur, Gurmeet and Sachdeva, Sandeep and Jha, Diwakar and Sulania, Anika, Ebola Virus Disease in the Light of Epidemiological Triad (January 12, 2017). Disclaimer. Feature Flags: { Disease Outbreak News. Each genus includes some serotypes with the distinctive characteristics to cause high mortality rate during outbreaks. Disease outbreak news. One year into the Ebola epidemic. WHO recommended criteria for declaring the end of the Ebola virusdisease. Read about the Epidemiologic Triangle. A practical community-based response strategy to interrupt Ebola transmission in sierra Leone, 2014-2015. Training for outbreak response through the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network. What are the benefits of exercise on cardiovascular health? The site is secure. [33]World Health Organization. You can read their DAILY Situation Summary. 2021 May 14;19(1):123. doi: 10.1186/s12916-021-01996-5. Keywords: "7b8= n4k7yRRQM>)/@I3X^s+}p-0+f9Gzw3MP:I&hRtqik pulo8jy@fia\evQ r8Xd`wf3tGB}OxCu,t^&V1VM/a'x(=O&)%kRYe8hCgU9Dq}! for this article. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. As known, the US certainly have less cases and deaths due to Ebola in comparison to countries all over Africa. The exact source of Ebola infections remains an open question, and despite all the efforts, there remains a lack of clear indicators about the reservoir of the virus. Woolsey C, Fears AC, Borisevich V, Agans KN, Dobias NS, Prasad AN, Deer DJ, Geisbert JB, Fenton KA, Geisbert TW, Cross RW. The emerging diagnostic technologies, rapid viral characterization, geospatial mapping of EVD transmission, and new treatments and vaccines are discussed. These variables play a role in the spread of the virus in human populations. Model-based evaluation of the impact of prophylactic vaccination applied to Ebola epidemics in Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo. An official website of the United States government. It was first reported in March 2014, and is the largest outbreak since the virus was first discovered in 1976. There have been advances in the detection and management capacity of outbreaks, and the notification time to the WHO has been reduced. Ebola virus disease Guinea. Ebola virus infection; chain of infection; determinants; replication number; risk factor; source; spread; transmission. The virus enters the host through mucous membranes, breaks, cuts, and abrasions in the skin, or by parenteral introduction. The .gov means its official. and It has also been responsible for smaller outbreaks in the DRC since then. Bats and rodents have been considered as potential reservoir species for a long time. Opens in new window, Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer. Today, we know that in total, over 11,000 people lost their lives ("Previous case counts", 2016). Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is the international health emergency paradigm due to its epidemiological presentation pattern, impact on public health, resources necessary for its control, and need for a national and international response. [28]New York Times. Retrieved on May 01, 2023 from More active disease surveillance needs to occur. doi: 10.7554/eLife.16412. Epub 2015 Jul 14. Ebola virus disease - Democratic Republic of the Congo. Origins of the 2014 Ebola epidemic. MeSH 2011 Jul;17(7):964-76. The second drug, Ebanga, is a single monoclonal antibody and was approved in December 2020. Tasks: Review the Ebola materials assembled for you by a team of experts and then use what you've learned to create a strategy to stop the outbreak. 2016 Aug 5;5(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s40249-016-0167-0. This vaccine is recommended as a pre-exposure vaccine for certain adults who are at risk of being exposed to Ebola virus (for example, outbreak responders, laboratorians or other staff at certain laboratories who handle specimens that might contain Ebola virus, and healthcare personnel working at state or federally designated special pathogens treatment centers). <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Ebola virus disease fact sheet. In class we got a chance to discuss Ebola in the US and in Africa. Arwady MA, Bawo L, Hunter JC, Massaquoi M, Matanock A, Dahn B, Ayscue P, Nyenswah T, Forrester JD, Hensley LE, Monroe B, Schoepp RJ, Chen TH, Schaecher KE, George T, Rouse E, Schafer IJ, Pillai SK, De Cock KM. Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a rare but severe, often fatal illness in humans. In this interview conducted at Pittcon 2023 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, we spoke to Ron Heeran, a speaker at the 2023 James L. Waters Symposium. Leroy EM, Gonzalez JP, Baize S. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever viruses: major scientific advances, but a relatively minor public health threat for Africa. Supportive care and management of complications are mainstays of treatment. 2 0 obj Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo, 2003: a new strategy? The following are the elements that make up the Epidemiological Triangle for Ebola. However, bats are frequent residents in equatorial Africa, where they are even hunted for food. Dec 2021 [internet publication]. FOIA Unfortunately, this is not the case in Africa. The first notification of the virus was mentioned in the Ebola River valley in Zaire for the time of an outburst in 1976. This is the same technique that epidemiologists use when they are researching the outbreak of a disease. A "mysterious" disease began silently spreading in a small village in Guinea on 26 December 2013 but was not identified as Ebola until 21 March 2014. endobj , The WHO declares an outbreak is over when no confirmed or probable cases are detected for a period of 42 days (i.e., twice the maximum incubation period) since the last potential exposure to the last case occurred; however, WHO recommends heightened surveillance and response activities during the 42-day period and for at least 6 months after. New York Times. The West Africa Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus) outbreak is the largest in history with sustained transmission in multiple countries.Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia have been the most heavily affected. It is important to note that the airborne transmission of Ebola has not been documented, which is comparable to how other respiratory viruses such as the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are spread. Still, pigs can act as an amplifying host, thus potential transmission routes need to be further addressed. Ebola - Transmission, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Clinical trials demonstrate safety and efficacy of Ebola Zaire vaccines, New technology may enable rapid diagnosis of Ebola virus, Researchers harness stem cells to study how Ebola virus infects and damages the liver,,,,,,, Uganda confirms seven cases of Ebola and one death, Trial of three vaccines for Zaire Ebola virus disease, State-of-the-art Biocontainment Unit opened at MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Ebola virus could be an aerosol-transmissible disease,, High-protein diet counters adaptive thermogenesis in prediabetic individuals. The site is secure. Ebola in Freetown area, Sierra Leone - a case study of 581 patients. There was considerable difference in the ability of health care services to deal with infectious diseases due to scarcity in supplies and training. Ebola is a problem in our society today. The virus enters the body through broken skin, through the eyes, nose or mouth, or through sexual contact. ), Marburg and Ebola virus infections in laboratory non-human primates: a literature review, Ebola: The Natural and Human History of a Deadly Virus, Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread, Isolation and partial characterization of a new strain of Ebola virus, Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire, 1977-1978, The reemergence of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995, Emergence of divergent Zaire Ebola virus strains in Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2007 and 2008, Ebola Virus Disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Gabon, 1994-1997: epidemiologic and health control issues, Outbreak(s) of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Congo and Gabon, October 2001-July, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Outbreak of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever - Uganda, August 2000-January 2001, Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Uganda, August 2000-January 2001, Filovirus outbreak detection and surveillance: lessons from Bundibugyo, Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011, Managing Ebola from rural to urban slum settings: experiences from Uganda. This page was processed by aws-apollo-l1 in 0.125 seconds, Using these links will ensure access to this page indefinitely. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a virus transmitted from humans or animals through body fluids. [34]World Health Organization. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Help CDC Issues Level 3 travel Warnings for West Africa. CHAPTER 2 - Retrospective studies conducted by WHO staff and Guinean health officials identified the index case . Epub 2021 Mar 18. Potluri R, Kumar A, Oriol-Mathieu V, Van Effelterre T, Metz L, Bhandari H. BMC Infect Dis. [29]World Health Organization. Such an idea was supported by experimental studies in African plants and animals that resulted in the transmission of the Zaire Ebola virus to African fruit and insectivorous bats, although a conclusive link could not be established. 2004 Jan;10(1):40-7. <> The Epidemiological Triangle the strategic model designed to contain outbreaks Center for Disease Control (CDC) | The Epidemiologic Triangle | Informational text The CDC is the nation's. falling to 31.5% in some treatment centers in West Africa,[27]Ansumana R, Jacobsen KH, Idris M, et al. Ebola Virus Epidemiology. 1 0 obj 2015 Feb 5;372(6):587-8., The most common species of Ebola virus responsible for outbreaks is the Zaire ebolavirus, the second most common species being the Sudan ebolavirus. This was the first outbreak in Guinea since the 2014-2016 West Africa outbreak. <>>> The virus's relatively unique structure, its infectivity and lethality, the difficulty in stopping its. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the 1978;56(2):271-93., Epidemiological Triangle Of Ebola Better Essays 1946 Words 8 Pages Open Document In 2014 the world watched in horror as West Africa experienced the largest Ebola epidemic in history. Dr. Tomislav Metrovi is a medical doctor (MD) with a Ph.D. in biomedical and health sciences, specialist in the field of clinical microbiology, and an Assistant Professor at Croatia's youngest university - University North. Contrasting academic and lay press print coverage of the 2013-2016 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak. It most commonly affects people and nonhuman primates, such as monkeys, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Flight 822 was where it all began. Text Version of Timeline. N Engl J Med. Special laboratory tests of the blood are needed to confirm the diagnosis of EVD. 2019 Sep 29;6(1):435-458. doi: 10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015708. It is transmitted by means of contact with infected blood, mucous membranes, semen and other secretions, therefore being skin lesions and sexual contact significant ways of transmission (Boulton, 2014). Unauthorized use of these marks is strictly prohibited. As the chart below displays, 71% of the people infected died as a result of Ebola during this first outbreak (Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 56 (2): 247-270, 1978). Before Although a considerable amount of effort has been put into identifying the natural reservoirs with every large outbreak of the disease, potential hosts or arthropod vectors for the Ebola virus have not been found. analyse site usage and support us in providing free open access scientific content. Accessibility Fields virology., In contrast to this, the Sudan ebolavirus has a lower case fatality rate of 39% to 65% in previous outbreaks, with the largest outbreak occurring in 2000 in Uganda (425 cases). In June, MSF called for the WHO to increase its response. Ansumana R, Jacobsen KH, Idris M, et al. The Ebola outbreak. The objective of this work is to study the evolution and progression of the epidemiological presentation profile of Ebola disease outbreaks since its discovery in 1976 to the present, and to explore the possible reasons for this evolution from different perspectives. Disease outbreak news: Ebola virus disease - Democratic Republic of the Congo. Suggested Citation, Maidan Garhischool of social sciencesNew Delhi, 110068India, Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic, International Institutions: Transnational Networks eJournal, Political Economy - Development: Health eJournal, We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. People become infected with Ebola virus through contact with infected wild animals or contact with blood or body fluids (urine, feces, saliva, sweat, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of infected humans. Jacob ST, Crozier I, Fischer WA 2nd, Hewlett A, Kraft CS, Vega MA, Soka MJ, Wahl V, Griffiths A, Bollinger L, Kuhn JH. Zhang M, Wang X, Hu L, Zhang Y, Zheng H, Wu H, Wang J, Luo L, Xiao H, Qiao C, Li X, Huang W, Wang Y, Feng J, Chen G. Microbiol Spectr. The first drug, approved in October 2020, Inmazeb, is a combination of three monoclonal antibodies. There are four different strains of the Ebola virus that cause disease in people: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Ta Forest virus (Ta Forest ebolavirus, formerly Cte dIvoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). Nov 2020[internet publication]. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! It can help your students understand infectious diseases and how they spread. Pigott DM, Millear AI, Earl L, Morozoff C, Han BA, Shearer FM, Weiss DJ, Brady OJ, Kraemer MU, Moyes CL, Bhatt S, Gething PW, Golding N, Hay SI. From nanoparticle-based enrichment to mass spec refinements, they explore how these tools facilitate unbiased, deep, and rapid proteomics. 3 0 obj UK Health Security Agency: ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fevers - outbreaks and case locations. January 2023 [internet publication]. Sanchez A, Geisbert TW, Feldmann H. Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola viruses. TIM-1 Augments Cellular Entry of Ebola Virus Species and Mutants, Which Is Blocked by Recombinant TIM-1 Protein. 2022 Dec;11(1):1635-1646. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2022.2086072. Owned and operated by AZoNetwork, 2000-2023. Although Ebola caught the worlds attention during the 1995 outbreak in Zaire, the first outbreak occurred in 1976. Organize key facts from your research by agent, host and environment. Emerg Microbes Infect. Affected countries in Africa included Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone and the epidemic, having begun in December 2013, went on for a full year, with additional cases occurring throughout 2015. On March 23, the WHOs Regional Office for Africa (AFRO) released the first Ebola report on the emergence of the disease in Guinea. Mar 2019 [internet publication]. Ladak, Reese Jalal The paper presents general information regarding descriptive epidemiology of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. The Epidemiologic Triangle The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines an outbreak or epidemic as "the occurrence of more cases of disease, injury, or other health condition than expected in a given area or among a specific group of persons during a specific period." Feb 2021 [internet publication]. Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during early March 2014 in Guinea's 3 southeastern prefectures (Gueckedou, Macenta, and Kissidougou), which border Liberia and Sierra Leone; however, retrospective investigations indicate Ebola virus (EBOV) transmission might have occurred in Guinea since December 2013 (1-4).On March 27, 2014, EVD was reported in Conakry . The Triangle has three. As the Ebola virus in the reservoir might present in a subclinical or asymptomatic way, there is a possibility of sporadic activation via appropriate stimuli such as stress, changes in food. Epub 2022 Apr 6. 2022: an outbreak of Sudan ebolavirus disease in Uganda started on September 20, 2022 and was declared over on January 11, 2023, with a total of 142 confirmed cases and 55 deaths (case fatality rate 39%). In addition to his interest in clinical, research and lecturing activities, his immense passion for medical writing and scientific communication goes back to his student days. News-Medical.Net provides this medical information service in accordance endobj Peterson AT, Bauer JT, Mills JN. Epidemiologic triangle Disease X False balance Flattening the curve Hand hygiene Immunology 101 Incidence vs. prevalence Infectious diseases as cancer cause Infectious disease modeling Lyme disease controversies Microbiome Mosquito lifecycle and disease risk Neglected tropical diseases Non-communicable diseases One Health Outbreak culture, 2021: a small outbreak was reported in Guinea on February 14, 2021 and was declared over on June 19, 2021, with a total of 23 cases and 12 deaths (case fatality rate 52%). Margaret Chan, the Director-General of the WHO responded by upgrading the outbreak a Level 3 emergency. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. There is no FDA-authorized treatment for the three other strains of the Ebola virus that cause disease in people. More info. Do ketogenic diets elevate low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels? endobj 8600 Rockville Pike Infection with the Ebola virus in Africa has occurred through the handling of infected gorillas, chimpanzees, monkeys, fruit bats, forest antelopes, and porcupines. [2]World Health Organization. 2014 Oct 16;371(16):1481-95. Genetic sequencing has shown that the virus isolated from infected patients in the 2014 outbreak is 97% similar to the virus that first emerged in 1976. Mar 2020 [internet publication]. endobj Clin Microbiol Infect. 2022: one case was reported in the DRC on August 21, 2022 in the North Kivu province. Although observed modes of transmission mainly include direct contact and contaminated staff, high case fatality ratio and frequent contacts among individuals in developed countries are among determinants which may lead to the development of the EVD outbreak. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. 1). Fortunately, a pharmaceutical company. Be sure the info you fill in Epidemiologic Triangle For Ebola is updated and correct. Clinical management of patients and deceased during the Ebola outbreak from October to December 2003 in Republic of Congo, A limited outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Etoumbi, Republic of Congo, 2005, Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases, Vulnerability in an Influenza Pandemic: Looking Beyond Medical Risk, Outbreaks in a rapidly changing Central Africa - lessons from Ebola, North Kivu: The Background to Conflict in North Kivu Province of Eastern Congo, Africa's displaced people: out of the shadows, Public health impacts of ecosystem change in the Brazilian Amazon, A brief history of Ebolavirus disease: paving the way forward by learning from the previous outbreaks,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;jsessionid=D50E261E8412FD55D03653A7195C1D2B?sequence=1,, Understanding the Role of Epigenetics in Cancer, Understanding Chronic Cough: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis, Circumcised vs. Uncircumcised; Differences in the Penile Microbiome, Obesity management: a women's health approach, AI analysis software for Zebrafish you must know, Excessive digital technology use is associated with reduced sleep quality regardless of environmental and genetic factors, study finds, Activating well-being goals in grocery stores: innovative strategies for encouraging healthy food purchases.
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